Pilots, crewmen, and the cooperation of passengers contributes significantly to safe landing procedures, perhaps more than the flight’s takeoff or in-flight operations. This is because proper landing is crucial for aircraft and passenger safety, where any lapse in judgment or attention to detail can immediately manifest as a potentially fatal accident. Furthermore, cross-wind, gusty, or foggy weather conditions can pose additional landing hazards; hence, a predefined landing sequence for safe aircraft landing is always paramount. In the case of an aborted landing, the missed approach point (MAP) is the location at a civil airport at which a pilot must immediately climb away from if the landing requirements of FAR 91.175 (c) are not fulfilled. At this point, the missed approach procedure is also set in effect if desired visual references are invisible to the pilot for another attempt at landing. As aircraft can be affected by various phenomena upon descent for landing, other instructions for a safe landing in a missed approach scenario will be discussed throughout this blog.


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When speaking about fasteners, many often discuss the various nuts, bolts, and screws that connect various parts together. Despite these components being extremely useful for assembling items, they often require supportive hardware known as washers for load distribution, surface protection, locking, and more. Depending on the assembly in question, the fasteners used, and environmental conditions, there are a number of washers that one may take advantage of. In this blog, we will discuss the Fender washer in particular, that of which is a fairly common option that is comparable to standard flat washers.


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Relay sockets are used alongside electromechanical switches where the variation of current in one electric circuit controls the flow of electricity in another. They are made of metal or composite materials and are designed in a variety of shapes and sizes. Typically, they differ in terms of terminal type, which is a device that has the capacity to terminate a conductor. They also vary in the number of pins per blade and the socket receptacle style.


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When utilizing a pneumatic system for power transfer, it is important to have ample control over the flow of air for executing various operations. The control of the volume flow of air within a pneumatic system is made possible through the use of flow control valve components. Flow control valves allow for actuator speeds to be adjusted as necessary, and they should not be confused with regulators or pressure controllers despite sharing similar attributes. In this blog, we will discuss flow control valves in more detail, allowing you to have a better understanding of such common components.


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Hoses are a form of flexible, hollow tubing that allows for fluids to be transported with ease, and they are a common element of countless aircraft assemblies. With the implementation of hoses, aircraft fluid systems can operate with ease as fluids traverse distances with little impact as a result of vibration or moving parts. As aircraft hose components serve important roles in the basic functionality of aviation fluid systems, it can be beneficial to have a general understanding of their common designs and use.


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Hex bolts are a common type of threaded fastener that finds use in construction, automobile manufacturing, engineering, and much more. Diverse in its capabilities, a hex bolt may be relied on for either construction or repair jobs with their ability to interconnect parts with the use of a mating nut. To help you better understand the importance of hex bolts, we will provide a brief overview of their design, applications, and common types.


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The direct short in a circuit can bring about damaging results along a network and its included wiring. This event occurs when voltage present in a system comes in direct contact with the ground or return side of the circuit, resulting in a path of current which contains little to no resistance. In such circumstances, current with very minimal resistance can lead to the rapid generation of heat which can result in melted wiring, damaged equipment, and the potential opening of the circuit. While aircraft primarily employ small gauge wiring with a limited carrying capacity, the size of wiring is ultimately chosen based on how much current the wires are expected to carry under normal operating conditions. To ensure aircraft circuits remain unperturbed from direct shorts, it is compulsory that circuit protection devices like fuses, current limiters, and circuit breakers be installed to protect different networks against overcurrent conditions.


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Providing ease of access to various parts of an aircraft, step ladders assist individuals into, and around, aircraft. Used by engineers, pilots, crew members, and passengers alike, there are a variety of ladders available for use within the aviation industry. To best meet your requirements, aircraft ladders can be manufactured specifically as height adjustable ladders, maintenance ladders, mobile stepladders, and boarding steps. Each unique in their own applications, ladders utilized within the aviation industry must promote stability while meeting specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards for the prevention of falls. To ensure you find a ladder relevant to your needs, we will briefly review different types of aviation ladders used throughout the industry.


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As an aircraft soars through the sky during standard flight operations, it must push through air and take advantage of its flow to achieve and maintain lift. As air is a fluid with flow that is disrupted by the moving airframe, interference and a change in direction can result in aerodynamic drag. Drag is a force that opposes the movement of an aircraft, resulting in efficiency losses and increased fuel burning to maintain set speeds. In order to achieve the most optimal operations, engineers have modified numerous aircraft sections to improve their design for more streamlined air flow.


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When discussing the joints of a particular assembly or manufactured item, one is referring to the location in which two or more components are permanently or temporarily attached to one another. There are various benefits to both variations, the permanent joint allowing for a strong anti-loose assembly while the temporary joint can enable more ease in separation for maintenance or replacement. Welding and riveting are both common methods for creating joints, often being used for the assembly of aircraft components, industrial machinery, and much more. To better understand the differences between welded and riveted joints, as well as their various advantages and disadvantages, we will provide a brief overview of each.


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